By John Saillant
Born in Connecticut, Lemuel Haynes was once first an indentured servant, then a soldier within the Continental military, and, in 1785, an ordained congregational minister. Haynes's writings represent the fullest list of a black man's faith, social inspiration, and competition to slavery within the late-18th and early-19th century. Drawing on either released and infrequent unpublished resources, John Saillant the following bargains the 1st accomplished research of Haynes and his inspiration.
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Additional resources for Black Puritan, Black Republican: The Life and Thought of Lemuel Haynes, 1753-1833 (Religion in America)
D. ” In this, Haynes aligned verse 21 with Paul’s teachings at large, but not with proslavery ideology. For in 1 Corinthians 7, Paul describes the highest holy states while allowing that certain middle states are preferable to sin. Paul’s teachings authorized Christians to seek the highest holy states when they can be reasonably and ethically realized. The middle states—here, for Haynes, one’s enslavement—were merely a compromise, sometimes made unavoidable by the world. Christian slaves therefore were to try their best to be free by the “Lawfull” measures available.
Such bondage was forbidden in the New Testament, Haynes, like Hutcheson, argued. Africans, however, not yet Christianized, failed to understand the new dispensation inaugurated by Christ and so continued to practice a Judaic form of bondage, Haynes claimed. The opinion typical of late-eighteenth-century abolitionists, that the slave trade and New World slavery exacerbated the condition of slaves of African heritage, merely conﬁrmed to Haynes and his black peers the Mosaic character of West African slavery.
To understand the late-eighteenth-century abolitionists, we must comprehend their antiMuslim animus, which derived not only from Christianity but also from awareness of the experiences of the slaves whose traders in West African factories had been Muslims. Abolitionists saw the inﬂuence of Islam in West Africa and in the African arms of the slave trade, although they were apparently unaware that Muslims controlled only certain routes, not the West African trade at large. North African Muslims had, abolitionists believed, carried Islam into sub-Saharan West Africa, where black Muslims in converted communities then became slave traders.
Black Puritan, Black Republican: The Life and Thought of Lemuel Haynes, 1753-1833 (Religion in America) by John Saillant