By J. R. Averill
In contemporary years, very much has been written regarding aggression; one other ebook at the similar subject might sound superfluous at the moment. besides the fact that, the current quantity isn't really just-or even primarily-about aggres sion. it really is, relatively, a booklet on anger. Anger and aggression are heavily similar phenomena, and it isn't attainable to debate one with no the opposite. but, no longer all anger is competitive, nor can all aggression be attributed to anger. accordingly, slightly diversified issues follow to every. much more importantly, the kind of theoretical generalizations possible make differs based upon no matter if the first concentration is on anger or aggression. the current quantity is subtitled "an essay on emotion." this means that the generalizations to be drawn have extra to do with emotional responses (e.g., grief, love, envy, etc.) than with numerous sorts of aggression (e.g., riots, conflict, crimes of violence, etc.). said a bit another way, anger is the following getting used as a paradigm case for the research of emotion, no longer for the research of aggression.
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Extra resources for Anger and Aggression: An Essay on Emotion
Novelty is an important factor in fear-induced aggression. Little is known about its endocrine and neurological bases, although it can be elicited by electrical stimulation of the brain. Maternal aggression occurs in many, but not all, vertebrate species. The eliciting conditions involve some threat to the mother's young. The probability of attack depends on the stimulus characteristics of the young and the hormonal status of the mother. , distress calls). Consequently, maternal aggression in primates may be displayed by females other than the mother and by males.
The basic unit of analysis at the social level is the role. Hence, emotions may also be viewed as transitory social roles. Emotions can be distinguished from other transitory social roles, in part, on the basis of the cognitive appraisals involved. Each emotion is based on a particular set of appraisals or evaluative judgments, and each has its own corresponding set of intentional objects. The intentional object of an emotion is a cognitive construction consisting of the instigation, the target, and the objective of the response.
For the moment, suffice it to note that there is no set number of basic or primary biological systems. The number of systems identified depends in part on the point at which one chooses to enter the behavioral hierarchy, that is, on the level of organization that is of primary interest. To complicate matters even further, biological systems are organized in a heterarchical as well as a hierarchical fashion. That is, the same behavioral element may form part of one biological system on one occasion and part of a different system on another occasion.
Anger and Aggression: An Essay on Emotion by J. R. Averill