By Kevin Hillstrom
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Extra info for American Indian Removal and the Trail to Wounded Knee (Defining Moments)
Demoralized and divided tribe. The various factions came together to draw up a new constitution and form the United Cherokee Nation. In 1841 a new capital was established in Tahlequah. By the 1850s the Cherokee Nation once again had its own roads, businesses, newspaper, and public school system. Meanwhile, around 1,000 Cherokee in Tennessee and North Carolina escaped removal. Some lived on land owned by whites or protected by treaty, while others simply managed to hide. They gained federal recognition in 1866 as the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and established a tribal government in Cherokee, North Carolina.
His declarations on this subject aroused criticism from lawmakers and newspapers in the North, but his stance enjoyed broad support in the South. By February 1830 both the Senate and the House of Representatives (which were led by Southerners at the time) passed bills calling for the removal of all Indians from lands east of the Mississippi River. Three months later Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act. This ruthless piece of legislation opened up all remaining Indian territories in the South to white settlement—and it formally authorized the president to relocate all eastern tribes to reservations west of the Mississippi.
121. Page, Jake. In the Hands of the Great Spirit: The 20,000 Year History of American Indians. New York: Free Press, 2003, p. 249. Monroe, James. First Annual Message to Congress, Dec. 12, 1817. The American Presidency Project [online]. pid=29459. Quoted in O’Brien, Sharon. American Indian Tribal Governments. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993, p. 124. Nabokov, Peter. Native American Testimony: A Chronicle of Indian-White Relations from Prophecy to the Present, 1492-2000. 1978. Revised ed.
American Indian Removal and the Trail to Wounded Knee (Defining Moments) by Kevin Hillstrom