By Herman L. Bennett
Полное название:"Africans in Colonial Mexico : absolutism, Christianity, and Afro-Creole recognition, 1570–1640"
В этом исследовании, автор обнаружил много новой информации о жизни рабов и свободных чернокожих в Мексике и как их жизнь была регулированна правительством.
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Extra resources for Africans in Colonial Mexico 1570–1640
The estates situated among or in proximity to indigenous communities represented the dominant spheres of interaction in which persons of African descent encountered native peoples. Even during the greatest decline of the indigenous population, Indians still constituted a signi¤cant minority, if not the majority, of laborers on or adjacent to local haciendas, plantations, and ranchos. As their numbers increased in the second half of the seventeenth century, a large number of men and women migrated to local estates in search of a livelihood.
45 Throughout the 1530s, a constant stream of bozales—recent arrivals from Africa unfamiliar with Portuguese or Spanish and ignorant about Iberian customs—joined acculturated Africans (ladinos) and mulattos already present in the countryside. 46 In the 1540s and 1550s, Spanish commercial activities rapidly expanded throughout New Spain. The availability of land, which Spaniards rented or purchased from the indigenous peoples, acquired as land grants, or simply appropriated through force and guile, facilitated mid-century commercial expansion.
By midcentury, commercial agriculture, livestock estates, and the mining industry essentially relied on a multiracial workforce composed of draft labor, enslaved Africans, and salaried workers. This variegated labor force profoundly shaped the composition of the community, the experiences of its members, and the formation of culture in New Spain. At midcentury, Africans were so numerous in New Spain that it alarmed the viceroy, Luís de Velasco. ”48 Despite Velasco’s warning, Spaniards annually imported over 500 Africans into New Spain.
Africans in Colonial Mexico 1570–1640 by Herman L. Bennett
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